Digital Citizenship

Digital Citizens

We have officially reached a point in history where we have an entire generation of people who have grown up using digital media. From their first moments of life, they have been introduced to technology, that provides them access and connectivity to the entire world. We see little ones in strollers playing with cell phones and iPad’s before they can even walk and talk. This new generation is already consuming and creating content at astronomical rates. However, it is important to note, and studies have shown that digital media consumption is addicting, both physically and psychologically. Participating in social media produces the same neurological response as using an addictive substance. Specifically, when a person receives a notification that a post has received attention, such as a ‘like’ or a ‘mention’, the brain naturally receives a rush of dopamine causing the person pleasure and a sense of satisfaction. This exact same response can be compared to individuals using addictive drugs (Hilliard, 2019).

In our day and age, many adults suffer from media addiction; however, young people suffer this addiction at a much higher rate, as they have been exposed to digital media content since birth. We are providing young persons with access to a world of information and people without providing them with the tools, guidelines, and education about how to use the Internet safely. Our goal in this article is to provide a framework for parents and young persons, in order to understand our role as a digital citizen and how we best to navigate content, with a focus on practicing good cyber hygiene.


I want to take this opportunity to provide you with a few comments and to say thank you for the extraordinary Executive Protection Institute (EPI) course experiences I had a few weeks ago. As you’ll note, I give high praise to your courses and people, not because I think it’s what you all want to hear, rather it’s because you and your program have earned and deserve every word of praise given, and probably more.

The exceptional instruction I (we) received, the caliber of students that your program attracts, the type of people I met who work in the field (instructors and students), the feel I got for what it would be like to work in the field of protection, and the incredible network that I feel I now have access to, just by having completed your Providing Executive Protection Program, has not only instilled excitement within me, it has inspired me to learn as much as I can, as well as pursue working in this field,… after having worked as an engineer/investigator for the past 15+ years.

I attended your Providing Executive Protection, followed by Protection Response Tactics, and then the Protector’s Pistol Course. Each course was exceptionally well planned and taught, and provided me, as well as my classmates with an extraordinary learning experience. Your teaching (facilitation) philosophy coupled with your very diverse and highly experienced security operators who taught the course modules, as well as my fellow students, are what made my learning experience extraordinary. I came into your courses with no protection experience, but with a number of years of teaching experience (physical techniques to groups of 6 to 100, and undergraduate and graduate level engineering courses), and without a doubt I can say that you guys rock!

The evolution, distillation, and streamlining of the material and how it is presented, the course planning and logistics of actually putting on the courses, and acquiring the very talented and approachable instructional and administrative staff, all of whom have gone through the 7-day PEP course (I really like that) no doubt have required significant effort and time, both of which are apparent and are hugely appreciated!

Thank you all for what you have put into your program, which truly is exceptional.

Personal Protection for Religious Leaders and Dignitaries: Developing a Climate of Trust and Confidence…


Personal Protection for Religious Leaders and Dignitaries presents some very unique challenges. The vocation and calling of many high profile leaders often requires them to have frequent interaction with the public. The security detail members that are familiar and sensitized to the spiritual and emotional climate of the environment will be in a better position and prepared to deal with the challenges.

The personalities and idiosyncrasies of the (principal, protectee)play an enormous role into the ebbs and flows of the protective detail. If we are uncertain of our ability to choreograph within this sometimes unpredictable and highly emotional charged environment we will find ourselves overwhelmed, jittery and frustrated. Our confidence will most certainly wane and impact our ability to provide the proper service for our client.

The ability to blend into the environment requires more than one’s dress attire and professional demeanor, blending requires an innate ability to interact with many people, some who are emotionally needy and others who possess some strong individualistic beliefs. There are some extremely intense encounters and will require an abundance of patience, tact and strength for the detail member.

A Jittery and Frustrated Practitioner:

We must be careful of not overreacting and acting out inappropriately to a non-threatening situation. Some protective members have prematurely advised their principal about non-essential situations, which only creates anxiety, frustration and may reveal the need for further training. Sometimes protective detail members have prematurely removed their principal from a non-threatening situation; this can foster distrust in the relationship and cause the client to lose confidence in the protector’s ability to handle matters professionally. Although there are moments when informing or providing cover and evacuating is deemed totally appropriate.

An understanding of key aspects such as behavioral nuances and leakage are essential towards our success, this will enable the practitioner to respond proactively. Equally important is combining these talents with a background in threat analysis. Threat assessments and threatening behavior must be identified early and evaluated before we can implement skillful and tactful interventions.

The Importance of Threat Assessments and Behavioral Analysis:

Personal Protection and Threat Assessments:

“There is a distinct difference between those who make a threat or those who pose a threat.”

There are several practitioners in the industry who are tasked with the responsibility of conducting a thorough threat assessment. These professionals have a clear understanding and knowledge of the basics and processes that are necessary to complete a thorough threat assessment and implement sound interventions. Sadly; there are too many who endeavor the task of handling threatening communication and threatening behavior that possess little understanding and knowledge of the basics and processes.

“Experience and training is necessary to determine the credibility of the threat itself”

The threat assessment process is essential to the successful practitioner and will assist in reducing unnecessary panic and the expenditure of unnecessary resources. All threats should and must be taking seriously, but not every threat is deemed credible and in fact some are indeed a hoax. Matters become more and more complicated when untrained and inexperienced professionals overreact and /or respond inappropriately to the communicated threat and/ or threatening behavior.

All threats should be properly assessed and evaluated to determine if there is any credibility to the communication or behavior. Threats classifications are placed upon a continuum which tends to range from – No Identified Risk to Extreme Risk. Keep in mind the continuum is fluid as the threat fluctuates.

7 Primary Factors when undertaking a Threat Assessment:

1. Is there anger, rage or frustration in the communication

2. Evidence of personalization

3. Specificity of threat

4. Does author have the technical knowledge to carry out the threatened actions

5. Does the author possess a strong commitment to the cause

6. Do ancillary incidents occur at the same time as the threatening communication

7. Escalation in communication increased frequency

Consider Developing and…

  • Identifying a member of the security detail to be responsible for interviewing and evaluating threats, letter writers, unusual interest from fans, etc.
  • Task that person to gather facts, track investigation and make final assessments
  • Provide for behavioral training for the designated staff member who is tasked with this responsibility

Behavioral Training is Key to Our Overall Success:

Behavioral-based training and practical experience handling numerous and diverse cases will be quite helpful in our profession. Occasionally the security professional may learn of someone who demonstrates an unusual interest in your protectee (principal), or you may encounter an emotionally disturbed person.

A practitioner who is well rehearsed in behavioral analysis will have an advantage in identifying many of these individuals well in advance and can properly assess the situation without ever breaching that sensitive inner layer of protection. When deemed necessary, the trained security professional will also know how to use creativity when implementing the appropriate interventions.

The complexity of the environment is further challenging due to the fact that there are persons we encounter who are sometimes delusional and need to be handled accordingly. Delusional – based stalkers are not uncommon and will occasionally arise from the crowd and begin their own stalking campaign. Therefore a team member who is adequately trained in aberrant behavior will be much better prepared to intervene in such instances.

Bring it all Together:

A personal protection practitioner with a strong background in behavioral analysis and conducting threat assessments will be a highly valued asset for any client. A protector who is trained and experienced in the behavioral aspects will be highly effective in the tactical and practical applications. A protector who has his tactical techniques together but lacks behavioral insights will more likely overreact or act out inappropriately. Some protectors will remain inactive due to the lack of behavioral sensitivities. There are situations that are just on the fringe that may suddenly escalate, while early intervention may have quelled the situation. Unpleasant and embarrassing scenarios happen to most professional protectors, but are less frequent when we are sensitized to the nuances and leakage aspects of behavior.

The Incorporation of Behavioral Analysis: The Use, Effectiveness and Benefits for Security Professionals and Protective Details…

Bill Martin, PPS

What is Situational Awareness?

Most of us have used certain techniques known or similar to what security professionals call situational awareness, a highly effective tool in crime/violence prevention. The observation skills used and incorporated make us sensitized to something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected (anomalies) within a particular environment. Our security team and protective detail was adequately trained and experienced in these aspects. We found them highly effective and quite successful.

The Incorporation and Integration of Behavioral Analysis:

Behavioral identification/analysis techniques incorporate a different set of skills and mental process. The incorporation of leakage is actively integrated throughout our assessments. The trained and experienced professional will assess the involuntary clues known as (leakage) and gain vital building block information.

The security practitioner who is experienced in behavioral assessments (leakage) understands and comprehends that people tend to reveal certain things about themselves unconsciously and involuntarily, becoming sensitized to these types of aspects enables us to act on the information we assess in a professional and appropriate manner.

A Personal Story That Illustrates Behavioral Analysis and Leakage:

It was a cold holiday weekend and we were traveling to visit family in another state. My wife and I decided to use a car ferry to cross state lines. We really enjoy the scenery traveling across the Long Island Sound. The weekend was great, and it was time to drive back home. As we were approaching the ferry entrance, we noticed several Department of Homeland Security Agents and a Strong Police Presence. They also had several dogs checking vehicles for explosives.

Was there a credible threat?

I pulled into the entrance and parked my car in a staging area, not uncommon before boarding the vessel. We were approached by a DHS Agent, while waiting in the staging area. I was in the driver’s seat, my wife in the passenger’s seat and my young son in the back seat of the car. I rolled down the window as the agent approached the driver’s side of the car. The Agent was friendly and respectful. He engaged me in casual conversation. The questions he asked were not intimidating. “How are you doing this morning?” “Where are you going today?” Simple casual questions and yet it caught me slightly off guard.

The final question he asked was a perfect example of an aspect of leakage (dress attire):

“Who was in the Marine Corp?” How did he know I was in the Corp? I asked him why did he ask and how did he know? I happened to be wearing a hooded sweatshirt with a small Marine Corp emblem inscribed on my upper front left side. I put this on in the morning as a matter of routine, I did it unconsciously. He was using behavioral analysis techniques to clear us or possibly detain us. Of course, we were cleared in a matter of minutes. He assessed and mentally processed the information he needed in a fraction of time, which gave him the confidence to clear us. He was professional, respectful and friendly in all his communications and mannerisms.

I told my wife afterwards; he just threw me off guard using similar techniques that I am accustomed to utilizing.

How does Leakage Work?

  • The more you think about something the closer you come, to doing it.
  • If a person believes in something so strong and intense it will begin to leak out.
  • Fantasy exists before the action; you can see fantasy before the action through leakage.

Let’s Break it Down Further Applying One Aspect of Leakage (Dress Attire)

I used the analogy of jewelry (an aspect of leakage) during a full day presentation at the Pennsylvania Institute of Criminological and Forensic Sciences. It was a great interactive exercise and tons of fun for all the professional attendees.

Accessories like jewelry are not a functional article of clothing as are shoes, which are generally worn for comfort, style, protection and the occasion. People wear jewelry for several reasons, but in most cases, it is not necessary or required to wear before leaving one’s home (unless for medical purposes). Some of the most common reasons for wearing jewelry are for fashion or sentimental value. Less common reasons are simply for attention and attitude. But either way jewelry often reveals a small piece of someone’s personality and may also give a trained behavioral analyst more vital building block information.

Case Example Mass Murder:

The Northern Illinois University Gunman Steven Kazmierczek revealed certain things about himself prior to the massacre on Feb 14, 2008.

His violent and horrific actions came as a shock to many including friends, family members, students and faculty. These are just some of the questions that often plague us in the aftermath of such horrific violence.

Body Imagery is another form of communicated behavior (leakage): 

Kazmierczek was certainly revealing his thoughts, feelings, personal interests and/or passions. They were leaking out in the form of body imagery. 

Protective Detail Case Example of Leakage: (Possessions and Non- Verbal’s)

A single white male who appeared to be in his mid to upper thirties is observed walking into to the church. Most men that attend the Sunday Services will be well-groomed and dressed in business type attire. This male was no different because he was finely groomed and dressed in a business suit and tie which appeared to be clean and pressed. He did not indicate or possess anything unusual on the surface. Because many men will enter the building with a small briefcase or something very similar.

But the cues and nuances he was leaking in his non-verbal’s were raising some behavioral concerns coupled with the manner in which he handled the briefcase. We mentally processed the varying different aspects of leakage and decided to engage him in a friendly casual conversation. We would quickly learn what we needed to know.

He affirmed our concerns; his possessions (the briefcase) gave him a sense of importance and great significance, the briefcase made him feel powerful, something of a higher status. He went on to inform us that he was intending to take the stage and assume the role of the head minister. This information allowed us to set boundaries and align ourselves appropriately. He would go on to begin a stalking campaign in which our principal became the primary target. We carefully monitored the situation and involved other supports and disciplines that assisted us in safeguarding the situation and our principal.

Those who are entrusted with the high calling of providing personal protection for their clients may encounter certain other type of stalkers who tend to be attracted to powerful and important people.

Celebrities, high profile political and religious figures are prime targets for identity – type stalkers which are looking for fame themselves, and the recognition they can attain through their acts.

Leakage aspects will help assist the close protection operative during their day to day work, they will become more and more sensitized to behaviors associated to leakage. Individuals and/or groups that believe strongly about something will leak out through one or more of these aspects. The practitioner may also recognize cues and nuances of what is deemed important and of value to a particular individual through various forms of leakage.

Much like a threat assessment… What someone spends their time, money and energy upon is of great personal interest and highly valued:

What one learns in these few seconds or minutes may prove valuable insight and possibly save lives.

It’s Much More Than Book Knowledge:

The ability to be sensitized with the skills to mentally process concerning behaviors varies differently from person to person. Some have thought that simply by reading books or attending training seminars automatically equips us for the task at hand.

All of our team members had been trained in behavioral identification and threat analysis, but not all were able to translate what they learned in the classroom and apply that knowledge into the real world.That means real life application is much more challenging than what we ever realized.

Development through Training & Mentoring:

A good leader must work patently on developing those within the team that are not readily grasping the training and material; here mentoring may be the preferred method. The rewards are huge when a team member begins to grasp the concepts being taught, it produces such a confidence.

Some of our team members began to learn that there are cases that are truly threatening and volatile and then there are other situations that require sensitivity, tact and careful interaction, because nothing can undue a professional (even momentarily) like overreaction or inappropriate approaches.

Those of us who understand the use and effectiveness of applying behavioral analysis will reap the rewards and benefits. Incorporating and integrating the knowledge we learn will no doubt have an advantage in crime and violence prevention.

Organizations, institutions and corporations will also benefit by the professionalism and preemptive measures employed by a trained practitioner:

These are some of the follow-up measures that skilled practitioners may choose to implement: